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GambiaYahya Jammeh
President

(JPEG) Jammeh, a former army sergeant who seized power in 1994 when he was only 29, boasts of his contempt for journalists. He has cracked down on all critics through his personal guard and secret police, with arrests, threats and bomb attacks against the media. But journalists, grouped in a trade union, fought back until the December 2004 murder of Deyda Hydara, editor of the newspaper The Point and former head of the union. The country’s media has been cowed since then and the killers have not been arrested or punished.

Journalists are illegally arrested on the slightest pretext at the president’s whim, even though Gambia is the headquarters of the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights. He continues to insist that “if I want to shut down a newspaper, I will.”

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Predators
There are instigators and powerful people behind press freedom violations whose responsibility is not always apparent. Whether presidents, ministers, chiefs of staff, religious leaders or the heads of armed groups, these predators of press freedom have the power to censor, imprison, kidnap, torture and, in the worst cases, murder journalists. To better expose them, Reporters Without Borders has produced these portraits.

Armed Islamist groups
Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan
Ilham Aliev
Azerbaijan
Alexander Lukashenko
Belarus
Than Shwe
Burma
Hu Jintao
China
Diego Fernando Murillo Bejarano
Colombia
FARC
Colombia
Raúl Castro
Cuba
Teodoro Obiang Nguema
Equatorial Guinea
Issaias Afeworki
Eritrea
Ali Khamenei
Iran
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Iran
Israeli Defence Forces
Israel
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Kazakhstan
Choummaly Sayasone
Laos
Muammar Gaddafi
Libya
Star Force Police
Maldives
Drug cartels
Mexico
Armed groups
Nepal
State Security Service (SSS)
Nigeria
Kim Jong-il
North Korea
The Executive Force
Palestinian territories, Gaza Strip
Palestinian Security Forces
Palestinian Territories, West Bank
Vladimir Putin
Russia
Paul Kagame
Rwanda
Abdallah Ibn al-Saud
Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Dhere and Mohamed Warsame Darwish
Somalia
Al-Shabaab
Somalia
ETA
Spain
Gotabhaya Rajapakse, Defence secretary
Sri Lanka
Bashar el-Assad
Syria
Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali
Tunisia
Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov
Turkmenistan
Islam Karimov
Uzbekistan
Nong Duc Manh
Vietnam
Robert Mugabe
Zimbabwe