The Enemies of Press Freedom Blacklist is an attempt to name all those who have personally committed crimes or grave offences against journalists or media and who are still unpunished.
Reporters Without Borders calls on the authorities in the countries concerned to seriously and impartially investigate these cases and to prosecute and punish those responsible.
18 names are on the list so far, based on information gathered by Reporters Without Borders this year. They include police officers, mayors, government officials, soldiers, politicians and members of armed groups and come from a dozen countries.
The full updated list can be seen at www.rsf.org. Details of each case are given, including any legal action taken against the "enemy" involved.
The aim is to fight against impunity by pointing to those personally responsible for serious violations of press freedom so as to discourage others tempted to attack freedom of expression.
To ensure presumption of innocence before conviction, the list only names those against whom there is credible and confirmed evidence that makes their guilt virtually certain.
The blacklist is an extension of the "predators of press freedom" list that Reporters Without Borders has maintained for the past few years. The predators are senior officials, such as heads of state and leaders of armed groups, who are a general threat to press freedom through their attitude or remarks but who have not been personally accused of serious abuses against journalists.
Crimes and offences qualifying a person for inclusion in the Enemies of Press Freedom Blacklist:
Murder or complicity in murder
Poisoning or complicity in poisoning
Rape or attempted rape
Torture or acts of barbarity
Violent actions resulting in injury requiring medical treatment
Threats of death or violence
Deliberately preventing assistance being given
Kidnapping and detention
Theft, destruction or serious damage to property
Unjustified questioning, arrest or detention