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Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2008

Questionnaire for compiling the 2008 Worldwide Press Freedom Index

The period runs from 1 September 2007 to 1 September 2008

COUNTRY MEDIA DATA

Estimated number of :

1. Journalists working in the country.

2. National news media outlets operating in the country.

3. Independent or opposition news media (not including media outlets in exile).

PHYSICAL ATTACKS, IMPRISONMENT AND DIRECT THREATS

How many journalists, media assistants or press freedom activists :

4. Were murdered ?

5. Were murdered, with the state involved ?

6. Were arrested or sent to prison (for more than two days) ?

7. Were briefly arrested (for a few hours) ?

8. Are currently in jail and serving a heavy sentence (more than a year) for a media-related offence ?

9. Were physically attacked or injured by representatives of the state (such as police, soldiers, political leaders or ruling party militants) ?

10. Were personally threatened with death by representatives of the state (such as police, soldiers, political leaders or ruling party militants) ?

11. Were physically attacked, injured or personally threatened with death by other people ?

12. In all the above cases, did the authorities do their best to punish those who seriously violated press freedom ? Give examples of efforts they made and give a score from 0 (no efforts) to 5 (strong efforts).

13. Did the authorities take steps to prevent those who seriously violated press freedom from being prosecuted (such as prematurely ending investigations, attempting to postpone a trial indefinitely) ? Give examples.

Were any journalists (yes/no) :

14. Illegally imprisoned (no arrest warrant, in violation of maximum period of detention or without trial or court appearance) ?

15. Tortured or ill-treated ? (distinguish between the two).

16. Kidnapped or did any disappear ?

17. Forced to leave the country because of pressure ?

Were there (yes/no) :

18. Armed militias or secret organisations regularly targeting journalists (such as terrorist action, bomb attacks, murders, kidnapping or direct threats) ?

19. Journalists who had to be accompanied by bodyguards or use security measures (such as bulletproof jackets or armoured vehicles) while doing their work ?

INDIRECT THREATS, PRESSURES AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION

Was/were there (yes/no) :

20. Surveillance of journalists with the state involved (such as phone-tapping or being followed) ?

21. Journalists from privately-owned media outlets forced to stop working because of harassment, threats or political pressure ?

22. Problems of access to public or official information (such as refusal by officials or selection of information provided according to the media outlet’s editorial line) ?

23. Restricted access to any regions of the country (such as an official ban or strict official control) ?

24. Foreign journalists deported or prevented from entering the country ?

CENSORSHIP AND SELF-CENSORSHIP

25. How many media outlets were censored, seized or ransacked with the state involved or had their operating licence withdrawn ?

Was there (yes/no) :

26. An official prior censorship body systematically checking all media content ? This does not mean a media regulatory body but a government or military office that inspects all content of public or privately-owned media and can order any item not to be published or broadcast.

27. Routine self-censorship in the privately-owned media ? Give a score from 0 (none) to 5 (strong self-censorship).

28. News that was suppressed or delayed because of political or business pressure ? Give examples.

29. Does the media report the negative side of government policies ?

30. Does the media report the negative side of actions of powerful companies or their owners ?

31. Does the media undertake investigative journalism ?

PUBLIC MEDIA

Was/were there (yes/no) :

32. A state monopoly of TV ?

33. A state monopoly of radio ?

34. A state monopoly of printing or distribution facilities ?

35. Government influence on the state-owned media’s editorial line ?

36. Unjustified sackings of journalists in the state-owned media ?

37. Fair opposition access to state-owned media ? Give a score from 0 (no access at all) to 5 (free and fair access) ?

ECONOMIC, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PRESSURE

Was/were there (yes/no) :

38. Unjustified and improper use of fines, summonses or legal action against journalists or media outlets ?

39. Cases of violating the privacy of journalistic sources (such as prosecution, search of premises or investigations) ?

40. Use of withdrawal of advertising (government stops buying space from some papers/broadcasters or pressures private firms to boycott media outlets) ?

41. Undue restriction of foreign investment in the media ?

42. A licence needed to start up a newspaper or magazine ?

43. Serious threats to news diversity, including narrow ownership of media outlets ? Give a score from 0 (no threat) to 5 (very serious threat).

44. A government takeover of privately-owned media, either directly or through firms it controls ?

THE INTERNET AND NEW MEDIA

Was/were there (yes/no) :

45. A state monopoly of Internet service providers (ISPs) ?

46. ISPs forced to filter access to news, cultural, social or political websites (not including pornography or gambling sites) ?

47. Websites shut down or suspended after pressure on ISPs ?

48. Cyber-dissidents or bloggers (how many ?) imprisoned for more than two days ?

49. Cyber-dissidents or bloggers (how many ?) physically attacked or injured by representatives of the state ?

Is there any point not included in this questionnaire that might be relevant to assess the situation of press freedom in your country ? Please mention them.

If there are questions you are not sure about (the accuracy of your answer or the applicability of the questions to your country) please list them and say why (such as lack of data, ambiguous questions, wording of them that does not apply to the situation in your country)



Questionnaire for compiling a 2008 world press freedom index
How the index was compiled

Evaluation by region:
- Americas
- Europe and former USSR
- Asia
- Maghreb / Middle East
- Africa


How the index was compiled

Index 2008
  The ranking
RankCountryNote
1Iceland1,50
-Luxembourg1,50
-Norway1,50
4Estonia2,00
-Finland2,00
-Ireland2,00
7Belgium3,00
-Latvia3,00
-New Zealand3,00
-Slovakia3,00
-Sweden3,00
-Switzerland3,00
13Canada3,33
14Austria3,50
-Denmark3,50
16Czech Republic4,00
-Lithuania4,00
-Netherlands4,00
-Portugal4,00
20Germany4,50
21Jamaica4,88
22Costa Rica5,10
23Hungary5,50
-Namibia5,50
-United Kingdom5,50
26Surinam6,00
27Trinidad and Tobago6,13
28Australia6,25
29Japan6,50
30Slovenia7,33
31Cyprus7,50
-Ghana7,50
-Greece7,50
-Mali7,50
35France7,67
36Bosnia and Herzegovina8,00
-Cape Verde8,00
-South Africa8,00
-Spain8,00
-Taiwan8,00
-United States of America8,00
42Macedonia8,25
43Uruguay8,33
44Italy8,42
45Croatia8,50
46Israel (Israeli territory)8,83
47Mauritius9,00
-Poland9,00
-Romania9,00
-South Korea9,00
51Hong-Kong9,75
-Liberia9,75
53Cyprus (North)10,00
-Montenegro10,00
-Togo10,00
56Chile11,50
57Panama11,83
58Kosovo12,00
59Bulgaria12,50
-Nicaragua12,50
61Kuwait12,63
62El Salvador12,80
63Burkina Faso13,00
64Serbia13,50
65Timor-Leste13,75
66Botswana14,00
-Lebanon14,00
68Argentina14,08
69United Arab Emirates14,50
70Benin15,00
-Malawi15,00
-Tanzania15,00
73Haiti15,13
74Bhutan15,50
-Ecuador15,50
-Qatar15,50
-Seychelles15,50
-Zambia15,50
79Albania16,00
-Fiji16,00
81Guinea-Bissau16,33
82Brazil18,00
-Dominican Republic18,00
-Tonga18,00
85Central African Republic18,50
86Senegal19,00
87Ukraine19,25
88Guyana19,75
89Comoros20,00
90Mozambique20,50
-Paraguay20,50
92Congo20,75
93Mongolia20,83
94Burundi21,00
-Madagascar21,00
96Bahrein21,17
97Kenya21,25
98Moldova21,38
99Guinea21,50
-Honduras21,50
101Guatemala22,64
102Armenia22,75
-Turkey22,75
104Maldives23,25
105Mauritania23,88
106Tajikistan25,50
107Uganda26,00
108Peru26,25
109Côte d’Ivoire26,50
110Gabon26,75
111Indonesia27,00
-Kyrgyzstan27,00
113Venezuela27,33
114Sierra Leone27,75
115Bolivia28,20
116Angola29,50
-Lesotho29,50
118India30,00
119United States of America (extra-territorial)31,00
120Georgia31,25
121Algeria31,33
122Morocco32,25
123Oman32,67
124Thailand34,50
125Kazakhstan35,33
126Cambodia35,50
-Colombia35,50
128Jordan36,00
129Cameroon36,90
130Niger37,00
131Nigeria37,75
132Malaysia39,50
133Chad41,25
134Djibouti41,50
135Sudan42,00
136Bangladesh42,70
137Gambia42,75
138Nepal43,25
139Philippines45,00
140Mexico46,13
141Russia47,50
142Ethiopia47,75
143Tunisia48,10
144Singapore49,00
145Rwanda50,00
146Egypt50,25
147Swaziland50,50
148Democratic Republic of Congo51,25
149Israel (extra-territorial)51,50
150Azerbaijan53,63
151Zimbabwe54,00
152Pakistan54,88
153Somalia58,00
154Belarus58,33
155Yemen59,00
156Afghanistan59,25
-Equatorial Guinea59,25
158Iraq59,38
159Syria59,63
160Libya61,50
161Saudi Arabia61,75
162Uzbekistan62,70
163Palestinian Territories66,88
164Laos70,00
165Sri Lanka78,00
166Iran80,33
167China85,50
168Vietnam86,17
169Cuba88,33
170Burma94,38
171Turkmenistan95,50
172North Korea96,50
173Eritrea97,50
Annual worlwide press freedom index 2007 Annual worlwide press freedom index 2006 Annual worlwide press freedom index 2005 Annual worlwide press freedom index 2004 Annual worlwide press freedom index 2003 Annual worlwide press freedom index 2002